A+ Answers

1. You’re a police officer who has been using an informant to infiltrate a dangerous gang that imports guns into your state. You know that the informant has been coming very close to getting caught lately and is currently under the suspicion of a powerful gang member. The informant is in grave danger, yet he has

been getting great information for you lately. You nevertheless send him in without a gun or weapon so as not to compromise his undercover status. Which of the following ethical systems most clearly would not allow this?

A. Natural law

B. Ethical formalism

C. utilitarianism

D. Egoism

2. Which of the following statements is true?

A. The “blue curtain of silence” has been wiped out in most departments.

B. Under the formal ethical code, police officers can accept gratuities from business owners as long as they follow specific rules.

C. There’s a vast difference between the formal code of ethics and actual police behavior.

D. If a department head is ethical, then the entire department is ethical.

3. Which philosopher was a proponent of the phrase “honesty is the best policy”?

A. Kohlberg

B. Bentham

C. Mill

D. Kant

4. Which of the following is an ethical system that focuses solely on the inherent nature of the act being


A. Ethics of care

B. Teleological system

C. Deontological system

D. Utilitarianism

5. Which of the following is an ethical system that emphasizes the existence of universal rights and wrongs?

A. Egoism

B. Relativism

C. Ethics of care

D. Natural law

6. Positivist criminology puts the spotlight on

A. incarceration rather than community service.

B. the criminal rather than the crime.

C. retribution.

D. what the victim could have done to prevent the crime.

7. One reason the criminal justice system is considered ethically dangerous is that individuals have

A. no formal training in ethics.

B. no say as to whether they must follow the spirit of the law.

C. discretion over following the letter of the law.

D. a great deal of interaction with the ethically challenged.

8. A criminal justice professional must be able to justify an ethical decision based on

A. his or her own set of values.

B. the law.

C. a work handbook.

D. precedents.

9. Amendments to the U.S. Constitution upheld most commonly by the criminal justice professional are

A. IV, V, VII, VIII, and XIV.

B. IV, V, VI, VIII, and XIV.

C. I, II, IV, V, and VI.

D. I, III, V, and VI.

10. According to Braswell, McCarthy, and McCarthy, criminal justice ethics is shaped by all of the following except

A. a personal sense of justice.

B. criminal justice.

C. social context.

D. the U.S. Constitution.

11. The _______ Amendment of the Constitution provides for the right to counsel in fighting a criminal charge.

A. Second

B. Fourth

C. Sixth

D. Fifth

12. Ethos is a Greek word meaning

A. morality.

B. good, bad, or indifferent.

C. character or conduct.

D. custom or character.

13. Opponents of rehabilitation efforts in penal institutions get support for their position by pointing to Martinson’s study, which says that

A. the American public isn’t willing to pay for rehabilitation programs.

B. the success or failure of rehabilitation can’t be determined in the amount of time an average prisoner spends in jail.

C. retribution works better than rehabilitation.

D. people who are “rehabilitated” still commit crimes once released from prison.

14. Which amendment of the U.S. Constitution says that once a person has been acquitted of a crime, he or she may not be retried for that same crime, even if evidence of guilt comes to light?

A. Fifth

B. First

C. Fourth

D. Second

15. The theory of stages of moral development is attributed to which of the following authors?

A. Karl Menninger

B. Jeremy Bentham

C. Lawrence Kohlberg

D. Emmanuel Kant

16. Under which of the following ethical systems is the killing of innocent civilians justifiable?

A. Ethical formalism

B. Utilitarianism

C. Ethics of care

D. Religion

17. One reason we give to charity is because we’ve learned that we get a reward in the form of goodwill

and self-satisfaction from giving. Which psychological theory of morality postulates this dynamic?

A. Learning

B. Utility

C. Moral stage

D. Predeterminers

18. Which of the following is an ethical system that stresses not using the individual as a means to an end?

A. Egoism

B. Utilitarianism

C. Natural law

D. Ethical formalism

19. When deciding cases, the U.S. Supreme Court usually relies on the _______ approach.

A. deontological

B. teleological

C. common sense

D. hedonistic

20. Theories that say individuals act because it’s their duty to do so are called _______ theories.

A. utilitarian

B. deontological

C. teleological

D. psycho-intuitive