1. A study of two types of weed killers was done on two identical weed plots. One weed killer killed 15% more weeds than the other. This difference was significant at the 0.05 level. What does this mean?
A. The improvement was due to the fact that there were more weeds in one study.
B. The probability that the difference was due to chance alone is greater than 0.05.
C. The probability that one weed killer performed better by chance alone is less than 0.05.
D. There is not enough information to make any conclusion.
2. A committee of three people is to be formed. The three people will be selected from a list of five possible committee members. A simple random sample of three people is taken, without replacement, from the group of five people. Using the letters A, B, C, D, E to represent the five people, list the possible samples of size three and use your list to determine the probability that B is included in the sample. (Hint: There are 10 possible samples.)
3. Based on meteorological records, the probability that it will snow in a certain town on January 1st is 0.413. Find the probability that in a given year it will not snow on January 1st in that town.
4. Suppose you buy 1 ticket for $1 out of a lottery of 1000 tickets where the prize for the one winning ticket is to be $500. What is your expected value?
5. Sammy and Sally each carry a bag containing a banana, a chocolate bar, and a licorice stick. Simultaneously, they take out a single food item and consume it. The possible pairs of food items that Sally and Sammy consumed are as follows.
chocolate bar – chocolate bar
licorice stick – chocolate bar
banana – banana
chocolate bar – licorice stick
licorice stick – licorice stick
chocolate bar – banana
banana – licorice stick
licorice stick – banana
banana – chocolate bar
Find the probability that no chocolate bar was eaten.
6. In a poll, respondents were asked whether they had ever been in a car accident. 220 respondents indicated that they had been in a car accident and 370 respondents said that they had not been in a car accident. If one of these respondents is randomly selected, what is the probability of getting someone who has been in a car accident? Round to the nearest thousandth.
7. If you flip a coin three times, the possible outcomes are HHH, HHT, HTH, HTT, THH, THT, TTH, TTT. What is the probability that at least two heads occur consecutively?
8. The probability that Luis will pass his statistics test is 0.94. Find the probability that he will fail his statistics test.
9. Jody checked the temperature 12 times on Monday, and the last digit of the temperature was odd six times more than it was even. On Tuesday, she checked it 18 times and the last digit was odd eight times more than it was even. Determine which series is closer to the 50/50 ratio of odd/even expected of such a series of temperature checks.
A. The Monday series is closer because 1/6 is closer to 1/2 than is 1/8.
B. The Monday series is closer because 6/12 is closer to 0.5 than is 8/18.
C. The Tuesday series is closer because the 13/18 is closer to 0.5 than is 9/12.
D. The series closest to the theoretical 50/50 cannot be determined without knowing the number of odds and evens in each series.
10. A class consists of 50 women and 82 men. If a student is randomly selected, what is the probability that the student is a woman?
11. Suppose you have an extremely unfair coin: the probability of a head is 1/5, and the probability of a tail is 4/5. If you toss the coin 40 times, how many heads do you expect to see?
12. Suppose you pay $1.00 to roll a fair die with the understanding that you will get back $3.00 for rolling a 5 or a 2, nothing otherwise. What is your expected value?
13. The distribution of B.A. degrees conferred by a local college is listed below, by major. Major Frequency
Liberal Arts 1358
What is the probability that a randomly selected degree is not in Business?
14. Suppose you have an extremely unfair die: The probability of a 6 is 3/8, and the probability of each other number is 1/8. If you toss the die 32 times, how many twos do you expect to see?
15. If you flip a coin three times, the possible outcomes are HHH, HHT, HTH, HTT, THH, THT, TTH, TTT. What is the probability of getting at least two tails?
16. A bag contains four chips of which one is red, one is blue, one is green, and one is yellow. A chip is selected at random from the bag and then replaced in the bag. A second chip is then selected at random. Make a list of the possible outcomes (for example, RB represents the outcome red chip followed by blue chip) and use your list to determine the probability that the two chips selected are the same color. (Hint: There are 16 possible outcomes.)
17. On a multiple choice test, each question has 6 possible answers. If you make a random guess on the first question, what is the probability that you are correct?
18. If you flip a coin three times, the possible outcomes are HHH, HHT, HTH, HTT, THH, THT, TTH, TTT. What is the probability of getting at least one head?
19. Of 1308 people who came into a blood bank to give blood, 314 people had high blood pressure. Estimate the probability that the next person who comes in to give blood will have high blood pressure (to 3 decimal places).
20. If a person is randomly selected, find the probability that his or her birthday is not in May. Ignore leap years. There are 365 days in a year. Express your answer as a fraction. A. 335/365
22. A researcher wishes to estimate the proportion of college students who cheat on exams. A poll of 560 college students showed that 27% of them had, or intended to, cheat on examinations. Find the 95% confidence interval.
A. 0.2323 to 0.3075
B. 0.2325 to 0.3075
C. 0.2325 to 0.3185
D. 0.2323 to 0.3185
23. The scatter plot and best-fit line show the relation among the number of cars waiting by a school (y) and the amount of time after the end of classes (x) in arbitrary units. The correlation coefficient is -0.55. Determine the amount of variation in the number of cars not explained by the variation time after school.
24. A researcher wishes to estimate the proportion of college students who cheat on exams. A poll of 490 college students showed that 33% of them had, or intended to, cheat on examinations. Find the margin of error for the 95% confidence interval.
25. A researcher wishes to estimate the mean amount of money spent per month on food by households in a certain neighborhood. She desires a margin of error of $30. Past studies suggest that a population standard deviation of $248 is reasonable. Estimate the minimum sample size needed to estimate the population mean with the stated accuracy. A. 274
27. The scatter plot and best-fit line show the relation between the price per item (y) and the availability of that item (x) in arbitrary units. The correlation coefficient is -0.95. Determine the amount of variation in pricing explained by the variation in availability.
28. 30% of the fifth grade students in a large school district read below grade level. The distribution of sample proportions of samples of 100 students from this population is normal with a mean of 0.30 and a standard deviation of 0.045. Suppose that you select a sample of 100 fifth grade students from this district and find that the proportion that reads below grade level in the sample is 0.36. What is the probability that a second sample would be selected with a proportion less than 0.36?
29. In a poll of 400 voters in a certain state, 61% said that they opposed a voter ID bill that might hinder some legitimate voters from voting. The margin of error in the poll was reported as 4 percentage points (with a 95% degree of confidence). Which statement is correct?
A. The reported margin of error is consistent with the sample size.
B. There is not enough information to determine whether the margin of error is consistent with the sample size.
C. The sample size is too small to achieve the stated margin of error.
D. For the given sample size, the margin of error should be smaller than stated.
30. Among a random sample of 150 employees of a particular company, the mean commute distance is 29.6 miles. This mean lies 1.2 standard deviations above the mean of the sampling distribution. If a second sample of 150 employees is selected, what is the probability that for the second sample, the mean commute distance will be less than 29.6 miles?
31. Sample size = 400, sample mean = 44, sample standard deviation = 16. What is the margin of error?
36. Suggest the cause of the correlation among the data. The graph shows strength of coffee (y) and number of scoops used to make 10 cups of coffee (x). Identify the probable cause of the correlation.
A. The variation in the x variable is a direct cause of the variation in the y variable.
B. There is no correlation between the variables.
C. The correlation is due to a common underlying cause.
D. The correlation between the variables is coincidental.
37. A sample of 64 statistics students at a small college had a mean mathematics ACT score of 28 with a standard deviation of 4. Estimate the mean mathematics ACT score for all statistics students at this college. Give the 95% confidence interval.
A. 28.0 to 30.0
B. 25.0 to 27.0
C. 29.0 to 31.0
D. 27.0 to 29.0
38. Eleven female college students are selected at random and asked their heights. The heights (in inches) are as follows: 67, 59, 64, 69, 65, 65, 66, 64, 62, 64, 62 Estimate the mean height of all female students at this college. Round your answer to the nearest tenth of an inch if necessary.
A. It is not possible to estimate the population mean from this sample data
B. 64.3 inches
C. 64.9 inches
D. 63.7 inches
40. Of the 6796 students in one school district, 1537 cannot read up to grade level. Among a sample of 812 of the students from this school district, 211 cannot read up to grade level. Find the sample proportion of students who cannot read up to grade level.