PF 25049000

Essay Objective
To write a 1600–1800 word argument essay that incorporates secondary sources to support your claim about an assigned topic
Assignment Objectives
Use prewriting, drafting, revising, and editing to write formal, college-level essays
Distinguish among different patterns of development
Apply an appropriate pattern of development to a specific purpose and audience
Write effective thesis statements
Develop paragraphs using topic sentences, adequate detail, supporting evidence, and transitions
Employ responsible research methods to locate appropriate secondary sources
Quote, paraphrase, and summarize secondary source material correctly and appropriately
Use Modern Language Association citation and documentation style to reference secondary source material correctly and appropriately
Apply the conventions of standard written American
English to produce correct, well-written essays
Lesson 9
Argument Essay
Choose one of the following:
Persuade your audience that the use of alternative energy is beneficial and economical, or that the use of alternative energy is expensive and as detrimental as traditional energy sources
Persuade your audience that social media provides a valuable outlet for free expression, or that social media allows users to insult, bully, and threaten others without any fear of punishment.
The purpose is twofold:
Persuade the reader to agree with the writer’s position (primary purpose)
Express the writer’s feelings about the reader taking action on the topic (secondary purpose)
Your audience is made up of your fellow Penn Foster classmates.
Many will agree with you, while others will disagree.
You must take a position, present evidence to support it, and try to convince your audience through the strength of your argument to agree with you and to take action.
Research Requirement
You’re required to use a minimum of four secondary sources in your essay.
Use at least two articles from Penn Foster’s digital library database, Expanded Academic ASAP.
Use at least one non-profit or government organization (online or print). You can find non-profit and government
organizations under various Subject Guides in the Penn
Foster Library.
Choose a source, but one that you’ve evaluated for accuracy and validity. You can find tips on evaluating your resources
in the Penn Foster Library Subject Guides under Process
1. Applying the requirements given, work through pages 558 to the middle of 560 in the section “Generating Ideas and Writing Your Thesis.” Review Chapter 22 in Successful College Writing, “Finding Sources and Taking Notes,” to begin your research and organize the information you find. Narrow your focus appropriately for the assigned length before attempting to develop the essay. 
2. Continue the guided writing assignment with “Developing Your Thesis and Making a Claim” on pages 560–565. Use strategies from the patterns of development you learned throughout the course to expand your main points and accomplish your purpose.
ReviewSuccessfulCollege Writing, Chapter 23, “Writing a Paper Using Sources” as you begin your draft to ensure that you’re incorporating your sources accurately and responsibly.  Remember to include the sources you use in your paper on your list of works cited.
3. As part of your revision process, review the purpose and requirements for this assignment. Make any changes necessary to ensure that you’ve met the goals for this essay. You may also find it helpful to review the grading criteria.
4. Prepare the final draft of the essay according to the exam submission format from the Course Information section.
 Submit only the final, polished draft for grading.
Essays must be typed, double-spaced, using a standard 12-point font and left justification. Use
1-inch margins at the top and bottom and 1.25-inch margins for the left and right sides of the
document. Each page must have a properly formatted header containing your name, student
number, exam number, page number, mailing address, and email address (see page 6 for an
example). Name each document using your student number first, then the six-digit lesson number, and finally your last name (for example, 23456789_050177 Doe). Save each as “File Type:


Programming Project 4
Modeling Temperature Transfer
 Suppose you have a thin metal plate where each of the edges are maintained at a constant temperature.  You can model the plate as a 2-dimensional array of square cells each of which may have a different temperature.  Given the size of the array and the temperature of the edges, you are to calculate the temperature of an interior cell by averaging the 4 neighboring (cells immediately above, below, left and right) cell temperatures.  The temperature of four corner cells will be the average of the two corresponding edge temperatures. 

            Your program is going to use the case of “immediate” updating in which you will be begin with the cell in the left most interior cell in the top interior row and work across the row, calculating new temperatures for each cell and replacing the old temperatures with the new ones.  Then you will proceed to the second interior row.  After calculating the temperatures for the all the interior cells an iteration counter should be updated and the process should repeat until all the cells have change in temperature of less than a value, epsilon, which indicates that equilibrium has been reached.  The temperatures of the edge cells should remain constant.

Your program should prompt the user to enter the size of the array and the temperature of the top edge, bottom edge, left edge and right edge.  The size of the array may not be more than 35 by 20.  The temperatures of the edges may not be less than 0 or greater than 300.  Store the temperature values in the appropriate cells, the corner cells should be the average of the two bordering edge cells.  You should assume that the interior cells originally are at 0 degrees.  The user should also be prompted to enter the value of epsilon that will be used to determine when the plate has reached equilibrium.

After the array has been initialized, begin the process of determining temperature of the interior cells (the average of the 4 cells that share an edge).  The temperatures of the cells on the outside should remain constant, only the temperatures of the internal cells should change.   Once the absolute temperature change of all the interior is less than epsilon you should output the array with the temperatures and state how many iterations were needed to reach the equilibrium temperature distribution.  Your program should employ a function to output the 2-D array.  The function should use appropriate formatting so the output of the temperatures in the cell are displayed to 1 decimal place and are aligned.

            For example, suppose you had a plate that could be modeled using a 5 by 7 array of cells, with the temperature of the top edge being at 100 degrees, the bottom edge being at 90 degrees, the left edge being at 75 degrees and the right edges being at 75 degrees.  Initially the array would look like:
Initial array
    87.5   100.0   100.0   100.0   100.0   100.0    87.5
    75.0     0.0     0.0     0.0     0.0     0.0    75.0
    75.0     0.0     0.0     0.0     0.0     0.0    75.0
    75.0     0.0     0.0     0.0     0.0     0.0    75.0
    82.5    90.0    90.0    90.0    90.0    90.0    82.5
If we assume epsilon is 0.01 degrees, after 20 iterations equilibrium would be reached and would look as follows:
The plate reached equilibrium after 20 iterations.
The equilibrium temperatures are
    87.5   100.0   100.0   100.0   100.0   100.0    87.5
    75.0    87.9    92.6    93.8    92.6    87.9    75.0
    75.0    83.9    88.6    90.0    88.6    83.9    75.0
    75.0    84.2    87.9    89.0    87.9    84.2    75.0
    82.5    90.0    90.0    90.0    90.0    90.0    82.5 

Healthcare Corporation

Assignment 3: Sources of Revenue The final project will be a cumulative project that will span the weeks of the course. Each week you will complete a section of the project, which will also coincide with that week’s lectures. Sources of Revenue Tenet Healthcare and HCA Holdings Inc. are major competitors in the healthcare industry. Visit the Web sites below to review the Income Statements for each healthcare organization. Tenet Healthcare Corporation: HCA Holdings, Inc. the revenue source information contained in the report. Present in a bar graph a comparison of the selected healthcare providers’ revenue sources by percentages. In 2 paragraphs write your analysis of the similarities or differences between these revenue sources

Calculations Shown

Jordan Enterprises is considering a capital expenditure that requires an initial investment of $42,000 and returns after-tax cash inflows of $7,000 per year for 10 years. The firm has a maximum acceptable payback period of 8 years.
a. Determine the payback period for this project.
b. Should the company accept the project? Why or why not?
NPV Calculate the net present value (NPV) for the following 15-year projects. Comment
on the acceptability of each. Assume that the firm has a cost of capital of 9%.
a. Initial investment is $1,000,000; cash inflows are $150,000 per year.
b. Initial investment is $2,500,000; cash inflows are $320,000 per year.
c. Initial investment is $3,000,000; cash inflows are $365,000 per year.
Payback, NPV, and IRR Rieger International is attempting to evaluate the feasibility of investing $95,000 in a piece of equipment that has a 5-year life. The firm has estimated the cash inflows associated with the proposal as shown in the table at the right. The firm has a 12% cost of capital.
a. Calculate the payback period for the proposed investment.
b. Calculate the net present value (NPV) for the proposed investment.
c. Calculate the internal rate of return (IRR), rounded to the nearest whole percent, for the proposed investment.
d. Evaluate the acceptability of the proposed investment using NPV and IRR. What recommendation would you make relative to implementation of the project? Why?
Year (t) Cash inflows (CFt)
1 $20,000
2 25,000
3 30,000
4 35,000
5 40,000
Assignment M5A1: Case Study, Lasting Impressions Company, Chapter 12 (13th Ed of Text)
Lasting Impressions Company: Lasting Impressions (LI) Company is a medium-sized commercial printer of promotional advertising brochures, booklets, and other direct-mail pieces. The firm’s major clients are ad agencies based in New York and Chicago. The typical job is characterized by high quality and production runs of more than 50,000 units. LI has not been able to compete effectively with larger printers because of its existing older, inefficient presses. The firm is currently having problems cost-effectively meeting run length requirements as well as meeting quality standards.
The general manager has proposed the purchase of one of two large, six-color presses designed for long, high-quality runs. The purchase of a new press would enable LI to reduce its cost of labor and therefore the price to the client, putting the firm in a more competitive position. The key financial characteristics of the old press and of the two proposed presses are summarized in what follows.
Old press: Originally purchased 3 years ago at an installed cost of $400,000, it is being depreciated under MACRS using a 5-year recovery period. The old press has a remaining economic life of 5 years. It can be sold today to net $420,000 before taxes; if it is retained, it can be sold to net $150,000 before taxes at the end of 5 years.
Press A: This highly automated press can be purchased for $830,000 and will require $40,000 in installation costs. It will be depreciated under MACRS using a 5-year recovery period. At the end of the 5 years, the machine could be sold to net $400,000 before taxes. If this machine is acquired, it is anticipated that the current account changes shown in the following table would result.
Cash +$25,400
Accounts receivable +120,000
Inventories -20,000
Accounts payable +35,000
Press B: This press is not as sophisticated as press A. It costs $640,000 and requires $20,000 in installation costs. It will be depreciated under MACRS using a 5-year recovery period. At the end of 5 years, it can be sold to net $330,000 before taxes. Acquisition of this press will have no effect on the firm’s net working capital investment.
The firm estimates that its earnings before depreciation, interest, and taxes with the old press and with press A or press B for each of the 5 years would be as shown in Table 1 (see page 504). The firm is subject to a 40% tax rate. The firm’s cost of capital, r, applicable to the proposed replacement is 14%.
Earnings before Depreciation, Interest, and Taxes
for Lasting Impressions Company’s Presses
Year Old press Press A Press B
1 $120,000 $250,000 $210,000
2 120,000 270,000 210,000
3 120,000 300,000 210,000
4 120,000 330,000 210,000
5 120,000 370,000 210,000
a. For each of the two proposed replacement presses, determine:
(1) Initial investment.
(2) Operating cash inflows. (Note: Be sure to consider the depreciation in year 6.)
(3) Terminal cash flow. (Note: This is at the end of year 5.)
b. Using the data developed in part a, find and depict on a time line the relevant cash flow stream associated with each of the two proposed replacement presses, assuming that each is terminated at the end of 5 years.
c. Using the data developed in part b, apply each of the following decision techniques:
(1) Payback period. (Note: For year 5, use only the operating cash inflows—that
is, exclude terminal cash flow—when making this calculation.)
(2) Net present value (NPV).
(3) Internal rate of return (IRR).
d. Draw net present value profiles for the two replacement presses on the same set of axes, and discuss conflicting rankings of the two presses, if any, resulting from use of NPV and IRR decision techniques.
e. Recommend which, if either, of the presses the firm should acquire if the firm has (1) unlimited funds or (2) capital rationing.
f. What is the impact on your recommendation of the fact that the operating cash inflows associated with press A are characterized as very risky in contrast to the low-risk operating cash inflows of press B?

BUSN 320

 BUSN 320 Minor Project (8%): Individual
You work for the Berea Amalgamated Products Company that produces coloring books, velvet paintings and other fine arts. 
You are proposing a new venture, to branch out into figurine animals and cartoon characters but this will require new equipment and a capital outlay.
You need to explore the financials before further researching unto a complete recommendation relative to this proposed venture.
Pertinent financial information is below briefly stated:
Accounts Payable and Accruals
Accounts Receivable
Notes Payable
Long-Term Debt
Preferred Stock
Net Fixed Assets
Common Stock
Total Assets
Total Claims

Last year’s sales were $225,000,000.
The company has 60,000 bonds (par value $1,000.; 30-year life) with 15 years until maturity. The bonds carry a 10 percent annual coupon, and are currently selling for $874.78.
You also have 100,000 shares of $100 par, 9% dividend perpetual preferred stock outstanding. The current market price is $90.00. Any new issues of preferred stock would incur a $3.00 per share flotation cost.
The company has 10 million shares of common stock outstanding with a currently price of $14.00 per share. The stock exhibits a constant growth rate of 10 percent. The last dividend (D0) was $.80. New stock could be sold with 15% flotation costs.
The risk-free rate is currently 6 percent, and the rate of return on the stock market as a whole is 14 percent. Your stock’s beta is 1.22.
Stockholders require a risk premium of 5 percent above the return on the firms bonds.
The firm expects to have additional retained earnings of $10 million in the coming year, and expects depreciation expenses of $35 million.
Your firm does not use notes payable for long-term financing.
The firm considers its current market value capital structure to be optimal, and wishes to maintain that structure. (Hint: Examine the market value of the firm’s capital structure, rather than its book value.)
The firm is currently using its assets at capacity.
The firm’s management requires a 2 percent adjustment to the cost of capital for risky projects.
Your firm’s federal + state marginal tax rate is 40%.
Your firm’s dividend payout ratio is 50 percent, and net profit margin was 8.89 percent.
PROJECT DELIVERABLES: Steps to WACC for the Optimal Capital Structure
Find the costs (rate of return under current market conditions) of the following individual capital components:
(ITEM #1)-Long-term debt, Bonds. [Hint: PV=-$874.78 (current selling price of Bonds), FV = $1000, PMT=$100, n=15 solve for i]. This is a calculator problem and if you follow the hints you will find the effective rate (see textbook appendix 10B, pages 337: Bond Valuation)
ITEM #2)-New Preferred stock
ITEM #3)-New common stock
(ITEM #4)-Compute the current Total Value of the Firm depicting its long-term elements of the capital structure.
(ITEM #5)-Determine the target percentages for the optimal capital structure: i.e. the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) using current values