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we are born with primary emotions (sadness, anger, joy, etc.) that have distinctive physiological patterns and accompanying facial expressions. The situations that trigger these emotions are: A. different within the same social context. B. different from culture to culture. C. the same everywhere. D. the same within the same gender, but different between the sexes. Ekman found that, when people try to hide their true feelings and fake an emotion, they: A. use different groups of muscles than they do when expressing authentic feelings. B. use genuine emotions, but inauthentic body language. C. use facial feedback to keep their true feelings from being known. D. block any thoughts that might trigger their true feelings and expressions. Reset Selection Marta, the company receptionist, is told to be pleasant on the phone and represent her employer with an upbeat mood. Although people calling in can’t see Marta’s expression, she spends most of her day smiling. Her coworkers remark that Marta always seems happy. The truth is that it’s her __________ that is/are influencing her mind to feel happy. A. desire to hold onto her job B. facial muscles C. Latina background D. natural personality Reset Selection Tim is extremely anxious about a merger his company has in the works with a larger corporation. Over the next few weeks, he becomes more high-strung and demanding at work. His secretary and other subordinates grow anxious, although they know nothing about the possible merger. Tim doesn’t recognize that his: A. emotional state is signaling that his employees indeed have something to worry about. B. body language is signaling that he may soon fire his staff. C. anxiety is causing others to feel anxious. D. being more demanding and erratic is causing cognitive dissonance and confusion among his employees. The amygdala has only a few seconds to determine if an event is dangerous or not and make an initial decision for approach or withdrawal. Upon further appraisal, the _________can override the amygdala’s decision and change the course of the person’s action. A. neurotransmitters B. hippocampus C. hypothalamus D. cortex Dante is given his first kitten. While holding it and feeling how soft her fur is, he puts her up to his face. In a playful gesture, the kitten taps his face with her paw and her nails scratch Dante’s nose. Frightened, he drops the kitten. His decision to drop the kitten was set in motion by the brain’s _________ region. A. cerebellum B. amygdala C. right prefrontal cortex D. cerebral cortex Reset Selection __________ provides the energy of an emotion, that familiar tingle, excitement, and sense of animation. A. Epinephrine B. Melatonin C. Norepinephrine D. Dopamine Certain emotions are associated with certain patterns of __________, which may explain why people all over the world use similar terms to describe basic emotions. A. visual and auditory stimulation B. autonomic nervous system activity C. activity in the occipital lobes D. hippocampal activity Thomas volunteers to take a polygraph test to prove he did not fondle a child who was under his supervision on a field trip. Thomas is taking a big risk because: A. children do not lie about such things. B. he should wait until there is a more accurate and valid test. C. court systems are biased against an alleged perpetrator who volunteers to take such a test to prove his innocence. D. there is a strong possibility that the polygraph might only measure his elevated anxiety and give a false indication of guilt. Jamal keeps thinking about what his boss said to him today and finds himself getting angrier by the minute. He decides to go play a little basketball to relax, but later that night he becomes angry all over again. Jamal is experiencing: A. déjà vu. B. a new surge of parasympathetic hormone release. C. physical arousal generated by his interpretation of what his boss said. D. right prefrontal brain activity related to his negative encounter with his boss earlier in the day. Reset Selection Studies of the cognitive element in emotion suggest all of the following EXCEPT: A. an emotional encounter can best be compared to a still photograph. B. people can change the way that they think, thus affecting their emotions. C. some emotions, such as disgust toward an ugly bug, involve simple, nonconscious reactions. D. cognition and physiology are inextricably linked in the experience of emotion. To be __________ would be considered a prototypical emotion in Western theories of emotion. A. anxious B. scared C. ecstatic D. nostalgic Human emotions are universal, but those defined as basic or “primary” are: A. the same from culture to culture. B. defined according to whether the emotion arises spontaneously or is induced by the situation. C. defined differently in different cultures. D. validly defined as such only within our Western culture. Reset Selection On a busy New York bus, a group of Italian schoolgirls are singing happily and talking about their boyfriends. Two classmates of East Indian descent are sitting next to this boisterous group with inexpressive faces and no conversation. These differences in emotional expression can best be explained by: A. what the two groups consider funny. B. the attribution theory of emotions. C. differences in culturally influenced hormone levels. D. cultural display rules of emotions. Adonis went to the Industrial Psychologist’s office all confused and upset. Apparently, his new supervisor told him to stop making the peace sign in a sideways motion, saying it looked like a gang-related gesture. Most likely, the psychologist advised the supervisor to: A. let Adonis make his hand gesture because it increased the workers’ camaraderie. B. be on the lookout for other gang-related signs because this behavior could be damaging to the company. C. discuss with his workers the importance of motivation and provide more time for the workers to bond. D. forget about Adonis’s hand gestures, but to admonish his worker for spending too much company time conversing with his friends. Reset Selection In the actual display of emotions, men are more emotional than women in terms of: A. their intensity. B. the depth of their feelings. C. how they verbalize what they are feeling. D. cultural display rules. Reset Selection Men prefer to avoid provocation in marital conflict because: A. women are more emotional than they are. B. conflict is physiologically more upsetting to men than to women. C. men are less able to control their emotions and have a hard time dealing with feelings of sadness. D. they feel inferior to women in verbal combat. Which one of the following statements about emotional and physical agitation during a marital conflict is true? A. The woman will become angrier than the man and hold onto her anger longer. B. The man will become more sullen and want to withdraw from the conflict, thereby escaping from his feelings of sadness. C. The man will become more hostile and negative, because he is more likely to have rehearsed his angry thoughts prior to the actual argument. D. The woman’s autonomic nervous system is more sensitive and reactive than the man’s. In many cultures, girls prefer __________ friendships based on shared feelings; boys prefer __________ friendships based on shared activities. A. “back-to-back”; “side-to-side” B. “face-to-face”; “back-to-back” C. “side-to-side”; “face-to-face” D. “face-to-face”; “side-to-side” Reset Selection Women are expected to be kind and attentive to other people’s feelings. In North America, when a woman in the workplace doesn’t smile when others expect her to, she is likely to: A. be accepted by the men, but not by the women. B. think this will improve her chances for promotion. C. be taken more seriously by her peers. D. be disliked.