During early childhood, gender-stereotyped beliefs

1. During early childhood, gender-stereotyped beliefs

A. first emerge.

B. strengthen.

C. weaken.

D. disappear.

2. Gender-schematic thinking is so powerful that when children see others behaving in gender-inconsistent ways, they

A. become more pronounced in their gender segregation as well as gender-role conformity.

B. experience a crisis of gender labeling that disrupts peer interactions.

C. object and tell that person not to behave in such a way.

D. often can’t remember the behavior or distort their memory to make it gender-consistent.

3. The connection between mature moral reasoning and action is

A. nonexistent due to the fact that theoretical morality and real-life morality are based on different constructs.

B. weak due to the impact of personal relationships on the decision-making process.

C. modest due to the influence of empathy, sympathy, and guilt.

D. strong due to the realization that behavior reflects thinking and judgments.

4. Dr. Arbus is interested in learning how children come to understand their multifaceted world. In her research, she asks questions like, “When do infants discover that they are separate beings, distinct from other people and objects?” Dr. Arbus is studying

A. the inner self.

B. social cognition.

C. personality development.

D. self-concept.

5. Colin says, “I’m Colin. I’m 6 years old and have two older brothers. I’m good at running and football. I’m not very good at wrestling, and I don’t like doing my chores. Sometimes I get mad at my brothers.” Colin is constructing his

A. self-concept.

B. remembered self.

C. theory of mind.

D. autobiographical narrative.

6. Research findings suggest that language is _______ teach children about gender stereotypes and gender roles.

A. the only method to

B. the primary means through which parents

C. not a factor in the way that parents

D. a powerful indirect means to

7. Twin studies reveal that empathy is _______ heritable.

A. slightly

B. highly

C. rarely

D. moderately

8. Which of the following statements is an example of recursive thought?

A. “If she doesn’t give me the book, I’m going to tell the teacher.”

B. “Mommy is mad because I hit my sister.”

C. “I thought you would think I was just kidding when I said that.”

D. “My teacher is always happy.”

9. During the evening drive home, Mr. Cruz looks at his 4-year-old daughter in the rearview mirror and asks what she’s doing. She responds, “I’m thinking inside.” Her response indicates an awareness of the _______ self.

A. categorical

B. enduring

C. remembered

D. inner

10. Eight-year-old Oren has just begun describing other people’s personalities. He is most likely to describe someone as

A. “tall and thin.”

B. “boring and dull.”

C. “angry and sad.”

D. “always fighting with people.”

11. In the United States, _______ students are the most isolated group.

A. white

B. Hispanic

C. black

D. Asian

12. Because cross-cultural findings on the reversals of traditional gender roles are inconclusive, a more

direct test of the importance of biology on gender typing could be achieved by

A. studying adolescent boys and girls in tribal villages.

B. observing other-sex play in children who score high in androgyny.

C. observing infant behavioral preferences immediately after birth.

D. testing the impact of sex hormones on gender typing.

13. To manage her emotion, 12-year-old Britney appraises the situation as changeable, identifies the difficulty, and decides what to do about it. Britney is using

A. problem-centered coping.

B. emotion-centered coping.

C. emotional self-efficacy.

D. a secure base.

14. _______ is the only emotion that males express more freely than females in everyday interaction.

A. Anger

B. Sorrow

C. Embarrassment

D. Envy

15. Which of the following four babies who went to the doctor for the same vaccination will most likely remember it better?

A. Mari, who smiled and cooed at the doctor

B. Bina, who was highly upset by the injection

C. Wyatt, who was startled by the injection, but didn’t cry

D. Juan, who remained alert throughout the appointment

16. Mastery-oriented children focus on learning goals, whereas learned-helpless children focus on _______ goals.

A. performance

B. specific

C. short-term

D. social

17. Temper tantrums tend to occur because toddlers

A. frequently compete with siblings for desired toys.

B. are easily overwhelmed and often have a difficult temperament.

C. recall that crying as an infant got them immediate adult attention.

D. can’t control the intense anger that often arises when an adult rejects their demands.

18. After seeing two little boys taunt another child on the playground, Najai tells the teacher that they should make playground rules that protect other people’s rights and welfare. Najai is requesting a common set of

A. social conventions.

B. moral imperatives.

C. moral ideals.

D. matters of personal choice.

19. In 1990, shyness in Chinese children was positively associated with being well-adjusted. However, as China’s market economy expanded and the valuing of _______ increased, the direction of the correlations shifted.

A. timidity

B. passivity

C. collectivist values

D. sociability

20. In response to the Heinz dilemma, Bill says, “You shouldn’t steal the drug because you’ll be caught and sent to jail if you do. If you do get away, the police would catch up with you any minute.” Bill is most likely in the _______ stage. A. instrumental purpose orientation B. punishment and obedience orientation C. social-order-maintaining orientation D. morality of interpersonal cooperation
Childhood Development