A+ Answers

Question 1
Which of the following defines characteristics with more than one attribute or value that can be observed or manipulated?
a.Research question.
c.Variables of interest.
d.Research design.
Question 2
A piece of work that is considered the original report of research providing firsthand information or is the first published account is known as a:
b.Scholarly journal.
c.Secondary source.
d.Primary source.
Question 3
When studying the effect of maternal alcohol use and disruptive behavior in children, maternal alcohol use is likely:
a.A manipulated variable.
b.A selected variable.
c.Unrelated to the child’s disruptive behavior.
d.Controlled by the researcher.
Question 4
A form of bias that allows a typically irrelevant trait to influence perceptions of another, typically more relevant, trait is known as:
a.Halo effect.
b.Hawthorne effect.
c.John Henry effect.
d.Experimenter effect.
Question 5
An equal likelihood that a participant will be assigned to at treatment, control, or comparison groups is known as:
a.Equal sampling.
b.Pre-experimental design.
c.Experimental design.
d.Random assignment.
Question 6
The extent to which a study can be generalized to other settings and populations is:
Internal validity.
External validity.
Construct validity.
Content validity.
Question 7
The effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable is based upon the examination of group differences in:
a.All research designs.
b.Between group designs.
c.Qualitative designs.
d.Within groups designs.
Question 8
A researcher must be concerned with the significance level of the correlation coefficient because:
a.Research reports require that significance exist in order to be published.
b.It is a measure of the validity of the relationship.
c.It tells the researcher how likely it is that the computed correlation value is due to chance or sampling error.
d.It determines the feasibility for the study.
Question 9
The most commonly used correlation coefficient that is used when the data is quantitative and has a linear relationship is known as a:
a.Spearman Rho correlation coefficient.
b.Phi coefficient.
c.Pearson product moment correlation coefficient.
d.Point biserial correlation coefficient.
Question 10
A community counseling program coordinator in a CACREP master’s program surveys graduating students annually regarding program perceptions. This is most closely aligned with which survey research design?
Question 11
The most important component in survey research is:
a.Determining data analysis methods.
b.Developing the research questions.
c.Determining sample size.
d.Designing survey items.
Question 12
The baseline phase in time series design:
a.Defines the treatment.
b.Occurs at the end of each design model.
c.Contains no treatment.
d.Is only used in momentary time sampling (MTS).
Question 13
The time series design model that reintroduces the intervention phase and controls for many threats to internal validity is:
a.Withdrawal-reversal design.
b.Simple phase change.
c.Alternating treatments design.
d.Multiple baseline design.
Question 14
In grounded theory studies, coding:
a.is used when developing diagrams to visually and accurately represent the research findings.
b.is important in triangulating research results.
c.helps organize concepts and develop categories.
d.organizes field notes and memos.
4 points  
Question 15
In phenomenological studies, an intentional process whereby the researcher attempts to extract their own biases is known as:
Question 16
When phenomenological researchers record their thoughts and reactions to the research process, participant responses, and participants’ non-verbals, they are engaging in what is best known as:
a.Reflective journaling.
Question 17
A retelling of the story with organization around themes is known as:
Question 18
There are multiple motives for conducting program evaluation. Of the following, which is the primary reason for conducting program evaluation?
a.Provides evidence for new or continued funding sources.
b.Counselors are afforded research and publication opportunities.
c.Managed care has significantly reduced the amount of time clients can be in services.
d.It is ethically responsible for best practice in counseling.
Question 19
The starting point for any program evaluation is:
a.Collecting data.
b.Determining needs based on the mission statement of the program.
c.Talking with stakeholders about their perceptions.
d.Developing a research instrument.
Question 20
Mixed methods designs are called such because they:
a.Incorporate gender differenced into each design.
b.Mix behavioral and theoretical models.
c.Blend quantitative and qualitative methodologies.
d.Can be used for either quantitative or qualitative research.
Question 21
A primary premise in mixed method design is that it:
a.Reduces the bias of using only one design.
b.Is more appropriate with adult populations.
c.Is less expensive that single design approaches.
d.Incorporates all types of known research designs.
Question 22
Which of the following is true about ratio scales?
a.They have a true zero point.
b.The distance between scale points are equal.
c.They range from strongly agree to strongly disagree and rate people’s attitudes.
d.They divide observations into categories and provides measurement by order and rank.
Question 23
When data points on a particular variable do not conform to a normal curve they are best known as:
a.Negatively skewed.
b.A frequency distribution.
d.Positively skewed.
Question 24
The ACA ethical code related to relationships between researchers and research participants:
a.Is similar to the codes related to relationships between counselors and clients.
b.States that nonprofessional relationships with participants is always avoidable.
c.Does not address documentation of rationale for the proposed interaction.
d.Differs from codes related to counselors and their clients because nonprofessional relationships are encouraged between researchers and research participants.
Question 25
A potential problem in multicultural research is a tendency to:
a.Consider variables such as gender, educational status, and sexual orientation.
b.Define culture broadly to encompass intersecting identities.
c.Define culture as race or ethnicity only.
d.Identify multiple components of culture.