A+ Answers

Part 1
2.Previewing an essay or an article is a helpful way to

A. create a mental outline of the content. 

B. distinguish between facts and misrepresentations.

C. determine the meaning of unfamiliar words.

D. answer any questions you might have about the material.
3. When the independent clauses of a run-on sentence are closely connected in meaning, the sentence can be corrected by joining the two clauses with a

A. semicolon. 

B. preposition.

C. comma.

D. adjective.
4. What is doublespeak?

A. Comparing two items using like or as

B. Language used to sugar-coat an unpleasant reality 

C. Using one thing to represent something else

D. The set of addition meanings or associations that a word has taken on
5. A claim based on merely one or two specific examples but applied widely as an overall statement about a situation, topic, group, or even a single individual is commonly referred to as a/an 

A. overstatement.

B. generalization. 

C. omission.

D. euphemism
6. Of the following, which correctly describes the complete predicate of a sentence?

A. The verb 

B. All of the sentence except the complete subject

C. The prepositional phrase

D. All of the sentence except the simple subject
7. In analyzing a piece of writing, take care to notice whether the author includes _______, ideas or principles expressed as fact without providing evidence to support it

A. quotations

B. omissions

C. assumptions 

D. denotations
8. One way to correct a sentence fragment that begins with a subordinating word is to

A. join the fragment to another sentence.

B. add a helping verb. 

C. insert a relative pronoun into the fragment.

D. revise the fragment to begin with an infinitive verb.
9. _______ adjectives name a quality of a person, place, thing, or idea.

A. Personal

B. Interrogative

C. Limiting

D. Descriptive 
10. How can you tell the difference between a compound sentence and a complex sentence? 

A. A compound sentence can be separated into two parts that can each stand alone.

B. Clauses in a complex sentence are always independent.

C. A compound sentence isn’t made of stand-alone clauses.

D. Complex sentences contain coordinating conjunctions that separate the clauses 
11. One way to demonstrate academic integrity is to 

A. give credit to sources you used in your writing. 

B. ask for help from an instructor.

C. collaborate with a classmate on a project.

D. use language similar to an original source.
12. In the sentence, “Our new assistant is very efficient; however, she is often late getting to the office,” the word however is a/an

A. conjunctive adverb.

B. preposition.

C. indirect object. 

D. adjective.
13. What is the conjunction in the following sentence?

I will take my sister to the concert, provided that she can buy a ticket. 

A. to the

B. concert, provided

C. provided that 

D. that she
14. Which of the following statements about reading is true?

A. Print sources can be trusted.

B. You have to sort through material and evaluate what you need to know. 

C. You should always read all types of material the same way.

D. You should always read a text only once to learn by reading.
15. In the following sentence, to which antecedent does the pronoun refer?

After Denise went to the grocery store, she stopped at the gas station. 

A. store 

B. Denise

C. she

D. station
16. Once you’ve previewed an essay or other reading assignment, you can help yourself to enhance your comprehension of the material by

A. immediately looking up words with which you were unfamiliar.

B. writing a response to what you’ve previewed. 

C. drawing conclusions based on your own experience.

D. formulating questions that will guide your reading.
17. In which of the following sentences is an adverb used correctly? 

A. She sang the song beautiful.

B. She sang a beautiful song.

C. She is a beautifully singer.

D. She sang beautifully. 
18. Choose the sentence in which the italicized pronoun agrees in number with its italicized antecedent or antecedents. 

A. The waiter refilled their glasses as they emptied it.

B. Maureen called the children for her meal. 

C. Mary and Jill won’t eat her vegetables.

D. The boys want their dessert now.
19. Word choices, sentence patterns, and other stylistic elements convey how an author feels about the topic about which he or she is writing, an element of writing commonly referred to as 

A. tone.

B. intention.

C. voice. 

D. euphemism. 
20. The _______ form of a verb should be used to distinguish between actions completed in the immediate past and actions completed before a specific time. 

A. simple past 

B. infinitive

C. irregular

D. past perfect 
250395RR The Reading and Writing Process
1. Your topic is courtesy, and you’re writing from the point of view of a caring mentor. Which of the following sentences is most persuasive for an audience of high school graduates from a working-class neighborhood?
A. Courtesy to others shows self-respect as much as it shows respect for others. 
B. Courtesy is the oil that lubricates the machinery of discourse.
C. Remember that you can catch more flies with honey than with vinegar.
D. Courtesy yields profits to the impecunious as well as to the wealthy.
3. Creative or spatial learners often find it useful to create outlines using
A. graphic organizers. 
B. formal topic outlines.
C. formal sentence outlines.
D. journal entries and annotations.
4. Evidence that supports your thesis should be
A. representative. 
B. rare.
C. generalized.
D. unusual.
5. What is the most likely purpose of the essay from which the following passage was taken?
Having been raised on a dairy farm in rural Minnesota, Lorie Ann Kline was having trouble adjusting to life in the city and to Central High School. In a conference with her parents, the school guidance counselor explained that Lorie Ann avoided talking to her fellow students and sat by herself in the lunchroom.
Perhaps most disturbing, her grades were not what one would expect given her high scholastic aptitude scores. Mrs. Kline agreed that Lorie Ann was often shy around strangers. A solemn Mr. Kline explained that his daughter had been severely bullied by two older children who had lived at the farm for a short time. The guidance counselor nodded in understanding.
A. To tell the life story of Lorie Ann Kline
B. To point out the harm done by bullies 
C. To argue for urban over rural life
D. To inform people about the work of guidance counselors
6. Deciding whether to express yourself, inform others, or persuade readers are issues are related to the _______ of writing an essay.
A. purpose
B. point of view
C. audience 
D. medium
7. Karen asserts that a thesis statement is best developed as part of the prewriting process. Kyle claims that a thesis statement should be completely developed before the writer is sure of the topic. Who is correct?
A. Neither Karen nor Kyle is correct.
B. Only Kyle is correct.
C. Only Karen is correct.
D. Both Karen and Kyle are correct. 
8. _______ is a method of narrowing a topic through subdividing it into subtopics, choosing one and subdividing it further until you’ve settled on a topic that is interesting, appropriate, and manageable.
A. Branching
B. Processing
C. Mapping 
D. Outlining
9. Information that distracts from or doesn’t support the topic sentence detracts from the overall _______ of a paragraph.
A. unity 
B. point of view
C. evidence
D. tone
10. What is the dominant pattern of development in the following passage?
Having been raised on a dairy farm in rural Minnesota, Lorie Ann Kline was having trouble adjusting to life in the city and to Central High School. In a conference with her parents, the school guidance counselor explained that Lorie Ann avoided talking to her fellow students and sat by herself in the lunchroom.
Perhaps most disturbing, her grades were not what one would expect given her high scholastic aptitude scores. Mrs. Kline agreed that Lorie Ann was often shy around strangers. A solemn Mr. Kline explained that his daughter had been severely bullied by two older children who had lived at the farm for a short time. The guidance counselor nodded in understanding.
A. Narration 
B. Comparison and contrast
C. Description
D. Process
11. To narrow a general topic you’ve selected, which pair of techniques is most likely to be effective?
A. Branching diagram and questioning 
B. Questioning and choosing an issue that interests you 
C. Freewriting and questioning
D. Using a branching diagram and consulting your journal
12. In developing the specific details of a paragraph of his essay on his experience as a nursing home volunteer, Alan wants his readers to feel as if they’re observing or participating in the experiences he’s describing. Which strategy will he most likely use?
A. Including the names of people he encountered
B. Using descriptive language that appeals to the senses
C. Answering questions
D. Using action verbs 
13. One of the nine ways, or patterns, of developing an essay is
A. editing. 
B. process analysis.
C. disputation.
D. elaboration.
14. One strategy for writing an effective conclusion to an essay is to
A. remind readers of the relevance of the topic. 
B. directly restate your thesis.
C. introduce new supporting evidence that wasn’t included in the body.
D. Introduce the conclusion with a signaling phrase, such as “In conclusion,” or “To sum things up.”
15. Please read the following excerpt from an essay, and answer the question that follows.
I’ve never actually met a real live humorist. Well, not in person at any rate. However, one summer, having a lot of time on my hands, I discovered unexpected treasures lurking in the local public library. Among the nuggets I unearthed in those musty stacks was a book by humorist Robert Benchley. To this day I remember one of his quips. He wrote, “There are two kinds of people in this world: those who divide the world into two kinds of people and those who don’t.” After laughing out loud, I became pensive. I wondered why the quip was so funny. A year or so later, I formed a theory. Humor is based on the unexpected.
In the passage above, the topic sentence and the thesis are one and the same. What makes the last sentence effective as a thesis statement?
A. Specific detail
B. Humor
C. Simplicity
D. Assertion 
16. An effective title not only indicates the topic, but often suggests your
A. approach.
B. recommendations.
C. tone.
D. audience. 
17. The introduction to an essay should not only engage the reader’s attention, but also
A. state your conclusions about the topic.
B. present your thesis statement and your approach. 
C. present a call to action.
D. defend your approach to the topic.
18. Which of the following is a strong introductory sentence?
A. I don’t agree with any open-carry laws.
B. To carry or to not carry, that is the question
C. Should each of the United States allow citizens to openly carry a weapon?
D. This essay will explain the open-carry laws in the United States. 
19. When creating a formal outline, all items at the same level need to
A. relate to the following topic or subtopic. 
B. express a new thought or idea.
C. support the topic or subtopic under which it is placed.
D. relate to the preceding topic or subtopic.
20. Please read the following excerpt from an essay. The sentences are numbered to help you respond to the question that follows.
(1) After Sean was arrested for breaking into a pawnshop, I began to wonder. (2) Why did some kids from my neighborhood end up in trouble while most of us didn’t? (3) I started out with a question: What causes young people to make bad choices? (4) Now, after two years of research, I’ve arrived at the conclusion that there is no simple answer. (5) There is no one reason why good kids go bad, but there are typical reasons. (6) According to my research, teenagers are most likely to get into trouble if they hang out with a bad crowd. (7) That’s because people learn their values from the people they associate with. (8) So a very big reason for bad behavior is imitating one’s peers. (9) But there are other important factors as well. (10) Kids who get in trouble are often school dropouts. (11) Also, kids being raised by a single mother are more likely to get in trouble than kids raised in an intact family. (12) Substance abuse also plays a role, especially when it comes to alcohol and legal or illegal drugs.
In which sentence or sentences do you find the thesis statement in this excerpt?
A. 2
B. 3
C. 4 and 5 
D. 5
250396RR Revising and Editing
1. Pablo insists that a conclusion should reinforce the thesis statement. Patrice says that the conclusion should follow logically from the introduction. Who is correct?
A. Neither Pablo nor Pam is correct.
B. Only Pablo is correct.
C. Both Pablo and Patrice are correct. 
D. Only Pam is correct.
2. Which of the following is an evaluation tool using questions and answers that lead to effective essay revision strategies?
A. Thesis
B. Flowchart 
C. Graphic organizer
D. Outline
3. Which of the following sentences uses parallelism effectively?
A. The report was good because it was factual and offered many details.
B. The Red Sox fans screamed, yelled, and were applauding wildly. 
C. Laura spent all her time gardening and arranging flowers, when she wasn’t in a shoe store to shop.
D. The large plant-eating dinosaurs were quite slow, rather stupid, and extremely hungry.
4. During revision, you should scan your paper for _______ words and replace them with concrete words or phrases.
A. general
B. formal
C. informal 
D. figurative
5. Paragraphs that use _______ diction tend to use first and second person pronouns and shorter, less varied sentences. ]
A. colloquial 
B. informal
C. popular
D. compound
6. Which of the following is a simple sentence?
A. I got to the airport late because the traffic was so terrible. 
B. I went to the airport, but I was too late to meet them.
C. Karen and David arrived at the airport at 3:35 P.M. and took a taxi to their hotel.
D. When I realized I was too late, I called David’s cell phone and made arrangements to meet them in town.
7. A _______ can be used for both organizing and revising an essay.
A. flowchart
B. graphic organizer 
C. verbal sketch
D. topic sentence
8. In order to demonstrate that one idea is less important than another, which type of sentence will Bernice use?
A. Compound-complex 
B. Simple
C. Compound
D. Complex
9. In the following sentence, which word is used as a coordinating conjunction?
Lisa and Mary were home on time, but Kim, Francine, and Penny weren’t going to make it.
A. and
B. on
C. but 
D. were
10. Eliminating unnecessary adverbs such as very, really, or extremely can help make a sentence more
A. compound.
B. figurative.
C. simple.
D. concise..- 
11. Which of the following sentences uses a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence?
A. My aunt, who usually behaves like a queen, was suddenly asking—no, begging—for help. 
B. The budget payment is much higher than we anticipated, but the price of heating oil has skyrocketed this year.
C. We fired our old housekeeper, who we thought had stolen Grandma’s rings; we later regretted it.
D. Out in the yard, the children shouted loudly and threw silly insults at each other.
12. Revising an essay primarily involves
A. devoting more time to planning.
B. correcting surface errors.
C. adding, eliminating, or reorganizing key elements. 
D. narrowing the topic.
13. Both Ada and Phil are evaluating their thesis statements, topic sentences, and evidence. If Ada finds that her essay doesn’t have a thesis statement identifying the topic of the essay, she will reread the essay to determine the main point of the essay. If Phil finds that his essay lacks evidence to support his thesis statement, he will do additional research to find substantial evidence. Who is correctly evaluating and revising his or her essay?
A. Only Ada
B. Neither Ada nor Phil
C. Only Phil
D. Both Ada and Phil 
14. What is the purpose of varying the order of subjects, verbs, and modifiers in different sentences within a paragraph?
A. To indicate emphasis where it’s needed 
B. To provide necessary evidence to support a thesis
C. To supply background detail for readers unfamiliar with a topic
D. To support the topic sentence
15. Which of the following figures of speech uses words such as like or as to make a direct comparison between to dissimilar things?
A. Personification
B. Metaphor
C. Cliché
D. Simile 
16. Spotting errors as you proofread is easier if you
A. use a clean printed copy each time.
B. handwrite your essay.
C. reassess your marked-up copy.
D. read your work from the computer screen. 
17. Which of the following is the correct form of punctuation to use when using a conjunctive adverb to create a compound sentence?
A. Colon
B. Dash 
C. Comma
D. Semicolon
18. The topic sentence of each paragraph should support the
A. title.
B. thesis. 
C. topic sentence of the following paragraph.
D. conclusion.
19. Choosing a good reviewer for your writing means finding someone who
A. knows everything about writing and will find every mistake.
B. is a close friend and will give you a positive review.
C. will concentrate on your ideas and how well you support them.- 
D. concentrates on correcting your spelling and grammar errors.
20. Which of the following is a complex sentence?
A. After Henry submitted his essay, he realized that he hadn’t proofread the last page.
B. identity theft is a growing problem, especially among seniors.
C. Jim tried to watch a video on a device connected to a crowded wireless network; as a result, the video stuttered and froze. 
D. We didn’t have enough potatoes for dinner, so we served rice instead.
250397RR Research and MLA Citation
1. In order to make a quotation clearer or fit grammatically into your sentence, you can add words and phrases enclosed by
A. parentheses. 
B. brackets.
C. commas.
D. ellipses.
2. Of the following, which is the most important to consider when analyzing and revising an academic paper?
A. The thesis is clear and that the main points support that thesis. 
B. The paper will be entertaining for the instructor to read.
C. The paper contains many large words.
D. The opinion is clearly highlighted with emphatic, emotional statements.
3. It’s necessary to use a/an _______ when a quotation is introduced by a verb.
A. ellipse
B. comma
C. quotation mark 
D. colon
4. As she begins researching her project, Bettina turns to _______ to steer her toward reference resources or basic books and articles that provide background information on her topic.
A. a general reference site
B. experts in the field she plans to interview
C. an online newsgroup
D. a reference librarian 
5. An annotated bibliography
A. is easier and faster to complete than a bibliography.
B. includes a brief summary of each source’s content and focus. 
C. includes handwritten notes in the margins.
D. doesn’t need to be in any special format.
6. The most common form of taking notes while examining sources is
A. paraphrasing. 
B. writing direct quotations verbatim.
C. copying and pasting.
D. summarizing.
7. Advocates, contends, points out, and states are all examples of
A. signal phrase attributions.
B. plagiarism.
C. citations.
D. helping verbs 
8. Which of the following items is not necessary to include in summary notes?
A. Your comments and opinions about the source 
B. All the information that is relevant to your topic and purpose
C. The time and date you read the source material
D. Complete publication information
9. Which type of Internet resource would be the most reliable in providing accurate information?
A. An online newsgroup dedicated to your topic
B. An email listserv
C. A general reference site such as Encyclopedia.com 
D. An email you received from your instructor
10. Which of the following would not be considered a primary source?
A. Eyewitness accounts
B. A book about your subject written by a biographer 
C. Original research reports
D. Letters, diaries, or speeches
11. Bradley has chosen topic for his research paper. What is the next step in the planning process that he should take?
A. Writing a working thesis
B. Creating an outline
C. Looking for sources
D. Listing research questions 
12. According to the rules of MLA format, when citing an Internet source, the access date portion of the citation refers to the date
A. you accessed the document. 
B. the article was published on the Internet.
C. in which the article was made publically accessible.
D. the article was most recently updated, if applicable.
13. _______ are publications geared toward audiences made up of people in specific professions.
A. Popular sources
B. Trade journals 
C. Reference works
D. General-interest nonfiction books
14. Which type of writing assignment would benefit the most from the use of outside sources such as scholarly works or reference works?
A. An essay describing your favorite kind of automobile
B. An essay about your last vacation with your family
C. An informative essay about the transformation of a caterpillar 
D. The first act of a play about John F. Kennedy
15. Which of the following require documentation?
A. Paraphrases from interviews you’ve personally conducted
B. Standard definitions of academic terms 
C. Your opinions
D. Totally original content
16. Which of the following would require documentation in an academic research paper?
A. A statement regarding Thomas Jefferson being the third President of the United States 
B. A map of Brooklyn, NY found in an atlas
C. A photograph from your family reunion
D. An observation you made while on a field trip to a zoo
17. When you search an online library catalog or a search engine, the first step is to enter _______, words or phrases that describe your topic.
B. domain extensions
C. keywords
D. abstracts
18. It’s best to avoid using quotations when
A. the author’s wording is unusual or noteworthy.
B. you’re revealing ordinary facts or opinions. 
C. the statement expresses an idea that you want to make clear is not your own.
D. the original words express the exact point you want to make.
19. Mendely, RefWorks, and Zotero are all
A. paraphrase generators.
B. citation (or reference) managers. 
C. listserv software.
D. newsgroups.
20. Barry is writing a research paper about the drought conditions in California. Rather than simply write that “the drought has continued over the past four years,” he would most likely need to use information from sources to
A. compare information about similar events.
B. eliminate bias.
C. reinforce an opinion with concrete evidence