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The amplifier of FIGURE 1 has a closed loop gain of 20 dB and *R* = 10 k_. The resistors have a tolerance of 5%.

a.Estimate the output offset voltage of the circuit of FIGURE 1 when

the op-amp used is

- i)op-amp A of TABLE A

ii)op-amp B of TABLE A.

b.If the circuit of FIGURE 1 uses op-amp A of TABLE A, show how the output offset voltage can be reduced by a circuit modification, calculating the value of any components used.

c.Explain why the technique used in (b) above is relatively ineffectual if op-amp B of TABLE A is used.

N.B. The output offset voltage is given by the equation: