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A __________ is the combination of base, a deoxyribose molecule, and a phosphate group.
A. chromosome
B. genome
C. DNA strand
D. nucleotide
The molecular structure of deoxyribonucleic acid dictates: A. the manner in which chromosomes are organized.
B. the way DNA encodes genetic information.—B  IS THE ANSWER
C. how molecules carry genetic information.
D. how chemical reactions burn food
In a DNA model, the alternating __________ and phosphate groups are represented on the two twisted ribbons.
A. thymine
B. guanine
C. sugar
D. cytosine
Before a cell __________, the double helix partially and rapidly unwinds.
A. dies
B. divides
C. replicates    C  IS THE ANSWER
D. bonds
The overall shape or conformation of the protein molecule is termed its __________ structure.
A. tertiary     A  IS THE ANSWER
B. primary
C. secondary
D. substrate
All enzymes are:
A. sugars.
B. proteins.   B  IS THE ANSWER
C. phosphates.
D. glycogens.
Bacteria contain rings of __________ called plasmids.
A. molecules
B. hydrocarbon
C. DNA
D. cells
DNA __________ utilize(s) unique fragments of DNA to identify a specific individual.
A. sourcing
B. fingerprinting
C. analysis
D. probes
__________ in cells, but not within cell nuclei, are vital to energy production.
A. Fatty acids
B. Hydrocarbons
C. Mitochondria
D. Proteins
Before __________ there was no hepatitis B vaccine.
A. transgenic modifications
B. recombinant DNA
C. electrophoresis
D. DNA probes
The biochemists who set out to decipher the genetic code concentrated on translating base language into __________ language.
A. codon
B. substrate
C. amino acid
D. DNA coded

Chromosomes consist of __________ compact structures of intertwined molecules of DNA in a human cell nucleus.
A. 39
B. 46
C. 48
D. 52
What is the totality of human hereditary information in molecular form called?
A. Chromosome
B. Human genome
C. DNA
D. RNA
What is a nucleotide?
A. The combination of nitrogenous base, sugar, and phosphate group
B. Phosphate units
C. Deoxyribose
D. The combination of deoxyribose and a phosphate group
Francis Crick established that genetic code was written in groupings of three DNA bases known as:
A. codons.
B. amino acid residues.
C. complementary bases
D. clonings.
Organic polymers of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds are called:
A. proteins.
B. codons.
C. genetic codes.
D. DNA bases.
Electrophoresis and __________ have made genetic fingerprinting a highly accurate and viable method for fighting crime.
A. x-ray diffraction
B. nuclear transfer
C. polymerase chain reaction
D. amniocentesis
The molecule with its reaction catalyzed by an enzyme is the:
A. catalyst.
B. active site.
C. substrate.
D. coenzyme.
Interferons are:
A. proteins that are produced by cells under viral attack.
B. genetically engineered proteins.
C. viruses that attack.
D. proteins that produce carbohydrates when they encounter a virus.
Diabetes is more effectively treated today through the creation of insulin by:
A. sickle-cell anemia.
B. recombinant DNA.
C. polymerase chain reaction.
D. electrophoresis.