Ans Doc193


1. police officers are more likely to arrest prostitutes rather than the prostitutes’ male clients. In the social-conflict feminist perspective, this fact illustrates
A. false consciousness.
B. social domination of women by men.
C. class warfare.
D. gender bias.
2. Some researchers believe that, if a “gay gene” exists, it will be located on the
A. Y chromosome.
B. X or Y chromosome, but more often on the Y chromosome.
C. X or Y chromosome, but more often on the X chromosome.
D. X chromosome.
3. According to Amitai Etzioni, people will join a/an _________ organization to pursue some morally worthwhile goal.
A. informal
B. normative
C. utilitarian
D. progressive
4. Opportunity, attachment, involvement, and belief are aspects of
A. labeling theory.
B. Hirschi’s social bond or control theory.
C. the medicalization of deviance.
D. Sutherlands’s theory of differential association.
5. Because Shane wants to make people laugh, he’ll find clever ways to contrast
A. factual and consequential realities.
B. factual and conventional realities.
C. true and false realities.
D. conventional and unconventional realities.
6. With regard to problems generated by bureaucracies, _______ refers to the rule of the many by the few.
A. oligarchy
B. inertia
C. alienation
D. ritualism
7. The German sociologist Georg Simmel would agree most with which of the following statements?
A. A network is a web of relatively weak relationships.
B. In-groups tend to identify out-groups.
C. The smallest social group is the dyad.
D. Members of large groups turn to fellow group members to form interpersonal relationships.
8. According to George Ritzer, the four principles of what he called McDonaldization include efficiency, predictability, uniformity, and
A. cost.
B. continuity.
C. control.
D. creativity.
9. If you wish to better understand the way people make sense of their everyday social world, you would most likely be focusing on the study of
A. “street smarts.”
B. ethnomethodology.
C. reality theory.
D. the Thomas theorem.
10. Regarding Sally Helgesen’s characterization of what she called the “female advantage,” which of the following statements is true?
A. Women aren’t more inclined to value communication and promote shared knowledge.
B. Women managers typically don’t give their employees more freedom.
C. Women tend to deemphasize the interconnectedness of organizational operations.
D. Women managers aren’t more concerned than men with maintaining their “image.”
11. The most significant form of nonverbal communication is
A. posture.
B. eye contact.
C. facial expression.
D. verbal intonation.
12. Which of the following best describes the concept of demeanor?
A. The use of deceptive body language
B. The devaluation of feminine words, such as hostess
C. Forcefully expressing one’s point of view
D. Patterns of behavior indicating relative social power.
13. According to the findings of the massive Laumann study, the percentage of adults who report having engaged in intercourse only a few times over a year or not at all is _______ percent.
A. 15
B. 30
C. 10.5
D. 0.5
14. Within a global perspective, which one of the following statements is true?
A. The American emphasis on individual financial success helps reduce crime rates.
B. Violent crime rates are much higher in the United States than they are in Europe.
C. The widespread ownership of guns in the United States appears to have no impact on crime rates.
D. Property crime rates are much higher in the United States than they are in Europe.
15. According to Emile Durkheim, deviant behavior
A. differentiates acceptable and unacceptable people.
B. encourages social change.
C. defines cultural norms.
D. amplifies moralistic ambiguity.
16. Conflict theorist Stephen Spitzer maintains that in America the _______ system plays the central role in shaping attitudes about deviance.
A. cultural
B. legal
C. social class
D. capitalist
17. If we compare and contrast, we find that psychological theories of deviance are most similar to
A. biological models that embrace the medicalization of deviance.
B. present-day genetic research that weighs environmental factors.
C. the body-type theories of William Sheldon.
D. the criminal-type theories of Cesare Lombroso.
18. According to Arlie Russell Hochschild, in typical corporate and business environments managers and supervisors attempt to control employees’
A. social life.
B. behavior and emotions.
C. inner narratives.
D. linguistic behavior.
19. Max Weber was concerned that the _______ of the modern world would suppress human creativity and dehumanize us.
A. rationality
B. competition
C. refuse
D. constitution
20. The Navajo view regards what type of people with awe because these people are seen as combining the power and potential of both males and females?
A. Intersexual
B. Male homosexual
C. Female homosexual
D. Transsexual
1. Religious beliefs centered on one God is associated with what phase of human social evolution?
A. Hunting and gathering
B. Pastoral
C. Industrial
D. Agricultural
2. Our self-image is based on our perceptions of how other people view us according to
A. Carol Gilligan.
B. Charles Horton Cooley.
C. Lawrence Kohlberg.
D. George Herbert Mead.
3. Which of the following hypothetical scenarios best suggests the violation of mores?
A. Rhonda, a Catholic, decides she should marry a Catholic man.
B. Walter is reprimanded for smoking on duty.
C. Jason, who’s British, forgets to drive on the right side of the road.
D. Cedric Frost is indicted for molesting a minor.
4. For most children, schooling is their first experience of
A. social structures.
B. bureaucracy.
C. learning.
D. the subtle curriculum.
5. According to your text, a main cause of cultural change is
A. revelation.
B. concealment.
C. invention.
D. repetition.
6. In the perspective of Erik Erikson, adolescents face which of the following developmental challenges?
A. Initiative versus guilt
B. Intimacy versus isolation
C. Identity versus confusion
D. Autonomy versus doubt and shame
7. Which of the following sociological perspectives draws on the philosophy of idealism to propose that values are the core of any culture?
A. Cultural relativity
B. Social conflict
C. Structural-functionalism
D. Sociobiology
8. According to research discussed in your text, which of the following groups has been found to have the lowest rate of suicide?
A. White women
B. White men
C. Black women
D. Black men
9. Peter Berger described the sociological perspective as seeing the
A. particular in the general.
B. general in the particular.
C. familiar in the strange.
D. strange in the familiar.
10. Who coined the term sociology?
A. Aristotle
B. August Comte
C. Thomas Hobbes
D. Copernicus
11. In the structural-functional approach, the fact that extended periods of education characteristic of our society serve to keep millions of people out of the labor market would most likely be called a
A. manifest function.
B. manifest dysfunction.
C. latent dysfunction.
D. latent function.
12. In their studies with rhesus monkeys, Margaret and Harry Harlow determined that their subjects manifested the least amount of developmental damage when they were
A. provided with a wire mesh “monkey” that included a feeding nipple.
B. simply left alone to fend for themselves.
C. raised on a diet of goat’s milk and soy meal.
D. provided with a soft terrycloth “surrogate mother.”
13. Leila, who had lived all her life in Ames, Iowa, experienced disorientation when she arrived in Paris, France. Her tour guide told her not to worry; she was only experiencing what sociologists call
A. cultural relativism.
B. culture shock.
C. jet lag.
D. ethnocentrism.
14. A proponent of multiculturalism would most likely reject
A. subcultures.
B. the English language.
C. Eurocentrism.
D. popular culture.
15. Which of the following statements is true regarding the study of human development?
A. The modern concept of childhood developed during the Middle Ages.
B. Industrialization created childhood as a distinct stage of life.
C. The boundary between adolescence and adulthood is defined by biological maturity.
D. Fifty years ago, children typically experienced more stress and anxiety than do today’s children
16. The only known language to be spoken by only women is found in
A. Australia.
B. southern China.
C. Near East.
D. northern Canada.
17. Which of the following statements about Sigmund Freud’s theories is correct?
A. The central function of civilization is denial of the death instinct.
B. Humans have a bonding instinct.
C. Humans are born with a selfish superego.
D. The ego is driven by a pleasure principle.
18. As material culture is altered through technology, nonmaterial cultural norms and values tend to lag behind new social realities. William Ogburn referred to this phenomenon as
A. the gap between ideal and real culture.
B. disintegration.
C. cultural lag.
D. ethnocentrism.
19. Among key values espoused in American culture, which one is most clearly associated with a common, usually male, bias against emotion and intuition as sources of knowledge?
A. Freedom
B. Material comfort
C. Achievement and personal success
D. Science
20. Most of the poorest countries on Earth are found in
A. Central America.
B. Central Asia.
C. Southwest Asia.
D. Central Africa.